GADDI DRESSES AND ORNAMENTS
Traditional dress of the gaddi community is typical easily distinguishable from other people of habitat by the way gaddis are dressed. Though the clothing pattern is going thru change with the passage of time, yet 'Chola and Dora' dress and is worn or considered on most of the festivals and occasions. Gaddis engaged in agricultural and allied pursuits wear pyjamas like other local people. Gaddi shepherds used to wear their traditional dress which is changing as well.
Traditional male gaddis wear'Chola'(or Cholu) which is a long loose woolen dress upto their knees and tied round their waist with several rounds with Dora. Gaddis women also wear similar type of dress is normally made from `Long Cloth' which is manufactured 'Chola' is white one. The chola is made up of 'Patti'(hand spun woolen cloth) and is stitched in such a way that Gaddi during migration keeps new born lambs in his 'Chola'. Baby Lambs can be 5-6 kilogram in weight. 'Chola' is used as bedding also. Special design of the 'Chola' is made of wool as earlier this apparel used to be the dress of Lord Shiva.
Dora is most important part of the dress as it is wworn over 'Chola' or 'Luanchri' round the waist. But to mean, woman and child. The maximum length of a 'female wear 'dora' measuring about 50 Mts where as for men it may be the 10 to 25 Mts. The maximum weight is 2 kg. which is worn by adult males. The 'Dora' of adult woman weighs in between If to 2 Kgrs, whereas the `dora' of children is about half kilogram in weight. It is made of wool and is ususlally black in colour. Dora' is worn due to a number of reasons.It is used as saddle for carrying the load on the back. It is used as rope for carrying luggage known as "Kachhi". It keeps the waist erect specially while climbing up the hills. Small articles like leather pouch of tobacco, flute and money bag are tied in it. This is also used as pillow especially during journeys. It has a religious touch as well and gaddis take it as a sign of 'Lord Shiva".
Luanchari - Women Dress
Dora - For Luanchari and Chola
Gaddi Women - Attire
Chola - Men Dress
Legs used to be generally kept naked by men earlier. "Suthan" or "Pyjama" is worn on certain occasions especially on marriages etc.This "Pyjama" or "Suthan" is of cotton or woollen(also called 'Unali-suthan') whicn is tight below the knees up to ankle and loose above knees. A loose shirt "Kurti", is worn by men under "Chola". This "Kurti" or "Kurta" is made of cotton cloth.
Both cap and turban are used to cover the head. The most common topi (cap) is made of woollen piece of cloth and is a round one which is 5 to 6 inches in height. Woollen topi which is known as "Bushari topi" in Himachal is also worn. Gaddis are found of Kalgi and flowers. They stitch kalgi on the topi and keep flowers on their turbans especially on marriages and fairs.The peak of the gaddi cap is said to represent the Kailash mountain peak. Women wear "luanchri" which is made of cotton cloth of special pattern and design.Complete luanchri reaches down to the ankles, it is worn in the same way as chola is worn by male gaddis. 'Chadru" is used by gaddans to cover the head. Mostly it is coloured muslin. The approximate length is two metres.Female costume consists of luanchari,dora along with a dupatta with frill, called Ghundu. It required 20 m of fabric to make a luanchari.
Gaddis mostly wear shoes made by local cobblers. Shoes are generally made up of leather, called Mocharu are heavy sturdy and last for longer time. These are rough looking but a durable shoes also called "Jutta".Footwear of ladies are also heavy in general and has colorful handicraft designs but lighter than mens footwears. Ladies also wear chappals mostly purchased from markets. Previously ladies were found bare footed but now the time has changed and they use chappals and shoes especially of plastic. For their children they purchase shoes made of plastic or cloth from the market.
During marriages gaddi boy(groom) traditionaly wears a very fascinating and attractive dress called Kadd or Luancha.It is a long red or maroon colored cotton frock with similar colored yolk. It is decorated with different types of mirrors, frills and pippins.The waist of the Kadd is tied with a white and yellow cotton piece called a Patka.A red or marron colored shawl is also taken over the Kadd.On the head groom wears a very intricate crown called Sehra made by local people, i consists of 'chiris' desinged coloreful sticks in its circumference.
The silver ornaments are more common than golden ones among Gaddi women. But this largely depends upon the availability and economic status.Most of the traditional gaddi ornaments are silver with mina work on it. In mina work the pattern of the jewellery is filled with colour.Ornaments has peculier motifs and designs. Silver ornaments are weighty and of peculiar design also considred sacred in Gaddi community.But for nose gold is considered good notion than silver.Ornaments are worn on both sides of nose, Balu on one side and Fulli on other side. Small ornaments are of gold.Traditionally gaddi jewellery was a heavy but now-a-days its weights is reducing according to the taste of wearer.The community has total dependence on local market for its jewellery.As a result they contribute good business to local sunars (goldsmiths). Woomen has often sing songs about getting their jewelery, like 'Churi-banga koke ghadi diyan vo suniara.. Koke ra rawaj bara bhari.. ho'.
Chak and Chiri are the silver ornaments meant for hair. Chak is made of silver is very light in weight. Hair clips are also used to keep the hair dressed. These are also made of silver. Necklaces are very popular among gaddi women. Necklaces are mostly made of silver and can be prepared by silver smiths of the village. They are still of the traditional design. Chandan Har and Champakali are the famous ornaments. Some Gaddi women were seen with golden Necklace " Kandu" which weighs approximately 20 to 30 grams. Many Gaddi women wore necklaces of silver rupee coins wearing emblem of Queen Victoria to which they called "Malka Rupiya". Many necklaces were just coins of 4 Annas and 8 Annas of pure silver with sume superstitios belief. They also wear the strings of red, white and green beads.
Ornaments of nose have their social and religious importance as these are considered the sign of "Suhag" of the women. Widow gaddans do not wear any ornament in the nose. Long, Koka, Tilli. and Balu are the ornaments of nose. Balu is worn on certain ceremonies. A golden ornament in the centre of nose is worn which is known as Black.
Variety of ear ornaments are worn by gaddi women. Some times 3 to 4 ear rings are worn for which the ear is pierced at 3 to 4 places. Some Gaddi males also wear ear rings. Among the ornaments of ear, Bali, Bunde, Jhumke, Kante, Latkni; Tungni and Kanphuls are famous. Silver bracelets are worn by Gaddi women. Gojru, Toke, Kangnu, Snangu and Bangan are the famous ornaments. Gaddi women do not miss the opportunity of purchasing bangles in the fairs. Finger rings are also worn and is known as "Mundri".
Some giddi women wear rings in their ankles and toe fingures. Some old gaddis had kept "Kan khurkani" and I'Dand khurkani with them. Even male gaddis belonging to upper strata of the community wear gold rings in ears and they call it "Murkies". Gaddi women keep long hair which are dressed with wooden comb known as `Kangi' which functions from both sides. Some have started using rubber/plastic combs. Gaddans while combing hair part them in centre and thus the hair on both sides are some times tied in many plaits and then a long braid is tied with cotton or silken "Parandu" of red or black colour. Some times they tie the hair with simple "Dori". Married women put vermilion in their mangs. A big red "bindli" or bindi is also put on the forehead. Some women decorate their hair with flowers. Women do not comb their hair daily. Mehandi is used by Gaddi women during marriages and other occasions. Men are not very particular about their hair dressing. Some young gaddis may comb their hair but old gaddis did not care to comb hair even for long time.
Chakk or Chonk:
It is put in the top/back portion of the head. It is conical in shape. It has two small round structures called chakdi in uniform size attached with silver strings. These are fixed on both sides of the main part after mounting it over the head.It is also considered sign of a married lady.
Gojru are silver bracelets with narrow width and are worn in pair.
It is a big sized necklace made up of silvers with mina work over it. It is worn in marriages and fairs. It is worn with Chola-dora and can be worn with a salvar kamij as well. On marriage groom also wears chander haar.
Chakk - Head Ornament
Gojru - Hand Ornament
Chanderhaar - Neck Ornament
Chiri is worn on forehead and is fixed with the help of strings. It is similar to mangtika and is important ornamanet of a married lady.
These are also flat silver bracelets as compared to gojru.Tokes are also worn in pair.
Pari is Payal(foot necklace). Worn on ankels usually made of silver. It makes loud sound while walking.It is usually a symbol of the presence of a newly wed in the house.
Chiri - Forehead Ornament
Toke - Hand Ornament
Pari - Ankle Ornament
Jhumkas are the ear rings whic may vary in shape size and metal.
Singi is small sized necklace, light in weight and clings to the neck.String consists of golden coloured light weight beads but pendent is silver only.
Clips are like ordinary clips connected with silver connections falls over the plait on both sides of neck.
Jhumke - Ear Ornament
Singi - Neck Ornament
Clips - Ear&Neck Ornament
It is round in shape and fixed over the plait after combing hair properly. One loop and two strings are attached to fix the beeni chakk.
These are toe ornaments.These are of different shapes and sizes.Although these are worn by most of women, for newly weds they are considered mandetory.
Fulli is big sized nose pin made up of gold.It is round in shape and generally red colored stone is placed in the middle of fulli. It is also considered as the symbol of a married lady.
Balu is a big sized nose ring. It is made up of gold and may vary in shape and size. Traditional jewelley of gaddis was hand made but now with new trends they go for machine worked jewellery as well.
|Head Ornaments||Ear Ornaments||Hand and Arm Ornaments || |
|Chak || Jhumke ||Gojroo |
|Chiri||Kante ||Toke |
|Jinjroo ||Chhalka||Choorian |
|Litki ||Boonde || Kangnoo |
|Nam Tika||Bor ||Char Kangna|
|Clip||Bali ||Thoti (of beads)|
| ||Pher ||Nag Band|
| || ||Angothi BorWali|
| || || Angothi Nag Wali|
| || || Angothi Bager Nag |
| || || |
| || || |
|Foot Ornaments||Nose Ornaments||Neck Ornaments|
|Tore ||Balu ||Gal Sari |
|Jhanjar ||Besar ||Kapoor-ri-mala |
|Panjeb(Pari)||Phulli ||Singi |
|Patadi(Pattari)||Tilli ||Chamkali |
|Ghun Karl||Blak ||Dhulsete |
|Phuloo ||Long ||Chanderhaar|
| || ||Malka-ke-Rupaon-ki-Mala|
| || ||Jaun Mala|
| || ||AthaniChawani-ri-Mala |